Academic texts

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This page is under construction, I will eventually make more texts available on the Internet! 

The page is slightly under-updated (as of January 2017). Info about everything I have written is in the blog itself (in blog posts) but that is of course cumbersome to track down for a casual reader.

GREEN TEXT constitutes placeholders that should be developed (abstract, links should be added etc.). This page is now however updated as of September 2016 and a comprehensive blog posts about all texts I have worked on during 2016 can be found here.


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Bradley, K. & Pargman, D. (2017, in press), "The sharing economy as the commons of the 21st century". Submitted July 2016, to be published in the Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society's (CJRES) special issue on "Sharing Economies? Theories, practices and impacts".

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Pargman, D. & Eriksson, E. (2016), "At Odds with a Worldview - Teaching Limits at a technical university" will be published in the October-November issue of Interactions magazine, special issue on "Sustainable HCI education".

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Eriksson, E., Pargman, D., Bates, O., Normark, M., Gulliksen, J., Anneroth, M. & Berntsson, J. (2016), "HCI and UN's Sustainable Development Goals: Responsibilities, Barriers and Opportunities". Workshop to be held on Monday October 24 as part of the 9th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (NordiCHI’16).

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Eriksson, E., Pargman, D., Björklund, A., Kramers, A. & Edvardsson Björnberg, K. (2016, September), "Sustainable development for ICT engineering students - “What's in it for me?”". Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development (EESD2016) in September.

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Pargman, D., Hedin, B. & Eriksson, E. (2016, September), "Patterns of Engagement: Using a board game as a tool to address sustainability in engineering educations". Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development (EESD2016) in September.

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Pargman, D., Ahlsén, E. & Engelbart, C. (2016, August), "Designing for Sustainability: Breakthrough or suboptimisation?". Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). Best Paper Nominee.

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Eriksson, E., Pargman, D., Hilty, L., Friday, A., Preist, C. & Cerratto Pargman, T. (2016, August), "Computing within Limits: Visions of computing beyond Moore's law". Workshop held as part of the 4th International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S).

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Raghavan, B., & Pargman, D. (2016, June). “Refactoring society: systems complexity in an age of limits”. In Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computing within Limits. ACM. Available online

Abstract 
Research in sociology, anthropology, and organizational theory in- dicates that most societies readily create increasingly complex so- cietal systems. Over long periods of time, accumulated societal complexity bears costs in excess of benefits, and leads to a societal decline. In this paper we attempt to answer a fundamental ques- tion: what is the appropriate response to excessive sociotechnical complexity? We argue that the process of refactoring, which is commonplace in computing, is ideally suited to our circumstances today in a global industrial society replete with complex sociotech- nical systems. We further consider future directions for computing research and sustainability research with the aim to understand and help decrease sociotechnical complexity.

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Pargman, D., Eriksson, E., & Friday, A. (2016, June). “Limits to the sharing economy”. In Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computing within Limits. ACM. Available online

Abstract
There has been much interest in the Sharing Economy in recent years, accompanied with the hope that it will change and specifically make better use of existing resources. It in- tuitively makes sense, from a sustainability point of view, that the sharing of resources is good. It could even be said that the Sharing Economy ought to align well with Comput- ing within Limits and its underlying premises. In this paper however, we take a critical stance and will elaborate on the intersection between the Sharing Economy and Limits (in- cluding pinpointing potential conflicts) so as to identify and discuss a ‘Limits-compliant Sharing Economy’. We argue that even though there are limits to the Sharing Economy today, it still has potential benefits for a future of scarcity— but only if the practice of sharing is approached with a dual focus on sharing and on limits at the same time. Finally we conclude that even though we have begun to explore the fu- ture of sharing, there is still a need to further develop ideas of how the underlying infrastructure for this movement will look.

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Joshi, S., Pargman, T., Gazis, A., & Pargman, D. (2016, June). “Whose Future Is It Anyway? Limits within Policy Modeling”. In Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computing within Limits. ACM. Available online.

Abstract
In the age of Big Open Linked Data (BOLD), we inhabit a landscape where future scenarios are imagined, modeled, planned for and embedded in policy. Between the euphoric techno-utopian rhetoric of the boundless potential of BOLD innovations and the dystopian view of the dangers of such innovations (e.g. ubiquitous surveillance etc.), this paper offers a critical understanding of the boundaries that are traversed by the implementation of BOLD within policy modeling. We examine BOLD as a tool for imagining futures, for reducing uncertainties, for providing legitimacy and for concentrating power. In doing so we further develop the LIMITs community’s conceptualization of the societal limitations on computing, with specific reference to the assumptions, interpretations and trust that we place in these models when making socio-environmental policy decisions. We use an illustrative case of policy modeling, which provides a much-needed critical discussion of the inherent limitations and risks as well as the promises that are offered by BOLD.

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Cerratto-Pargman, T., Pargman, D., & Nardi, B. (2016). "The Internet at the eco-village: Performing sustainability in the twenty-first century". First Monday, 21(5). Available online

Abstract
Is the digital infrastructure and its footprint an ideological blind spot for recently emerging ecological communities, including eco-villages? This paper examines how a group of people who are concerned with environmental issues such as peak oil and climate change are orchestrating a transition toward a more sustainable and resilient way of living. We studied a Swedish eco-village, considering how computing in this community contributes to defining what alternative ways of living might look like in the twenty-first century. Drawing on a social-ecological perspective, the analysis illustrates, on the one hand, that the Internet, along with the digital devices we use to access it, capitalizes and mobilizes values, knowledge and social relationships that in turn enhance resilience in the eco-village. On the other hand, the analysis shows that an explicit focus on ecological values is not sufficient for a community of individuals to significantly transform Internet use to conform to ecological ideals. This work contributes to a deeper understanding of the imbrication of social technologies with practices that are oriented to perform sustainable and resilient ways of living.

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Pargman, D. (2015). “On the limits of limits”. First Monday, 20(8). Available online.

Abstract
This discussion paper outlines the connection between the perceived urgency of environmental and resource challenges that humanity is facing during the twenty-first century and the individual researcher’s response within the emerging “Computing within Limits” community. What is the relationship between our beliefs as individuals and as researchers and the specific issues we chose to study? Furthermore, is there a relationship between skills and topics we happen to be expert in and the subsequent future scenarios we plan for and deem to be more likely to happen?

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Pargman, D., & Raghavan, B. (2015). “Introduction to LIMITS'15: First workshop on computing within limits”. First Monday, 20(8). Available online.

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Josefsson, P., Hrastinski, S., Pargman, D., & Pargman, T. C. (2015). The student, the private and the professional role: Students’ social media use. Education and Information Technologies, 1-12.

Abstract:
Research has shown that students perceive a distinct divide between educational and private use of social media. The present study explores this divide by focusing on master students’ perception of roles when using social media in a higher education context. A qualitative method has been used, mainly comprising of analyses of home exams and interviews, which were conducted with students enrolled in the master’s course “Social media technologies”. Results support previous research stating that students perceived a distinct divide between educational and private use of social media, and furthermore provide a more detailed understanding of this divide. The results from the study also indicate that there is yet another type of use: social media as a tool for career-building purposes, or what is labeled as professional use. Implications of social media for use in higher education are described through the analysis of three roles as performed by the individual: the student role in educational settings, the professional role for career-building, and the private role.

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Pargman, D. & Raghavan, B. (2014) Rethinking sustainability in computing: from buzzword to non-negotiable limits. In Proceedings of the 8th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Fun, Fast, Foundational (pp. 638-647). ACM

Abstract:
There has been a recent flurry of work on sustainable computing and sustainable HCI, but it is thus far unclear whether this work adheres to any meaningful definitions of sustainability. It is therefore uncertain whether we as a community are working towards similar or wildly differing goals. In this paper, we present four interlocking frameworks that provide a rigorous foundation for what constitutes sustainability. Each consecutive framework both builds upon and can loosely be seen as a gradual specification and operationalization of the previous framework. We more specifically leverage prominent ecological thinking from outside of computer science to inform what sustainability means and thus the implications for sustainable computing. To this end, we re-evaluate some recent results from the sustainable HCI area and point the way for further research in the field.


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Pargman, D., Eriksson, E., Katzeff, C., Preist, C., Håkansson, M. and Knowles, B. (2014). "Is there a European strand of Sustainable HCI?". Accepted workshop proposal, to be published in the proceedings of the NordiCHI 2014 conference.

Abstract:
Sustainability has been an established topic at the main CHI conference since 2007. It has, however, not been an equally prominent theme at the NordiCHI conference. It is now time to establish Sustainable HCI as an important and prominent topic also at NordiCHI

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Picha Edwardsson, M. and Pargman, D. (2014). "Explorative scenarios of emerging media trends". Accepted for publication in the Journal of Print and Media Technology Research.

Abstract (the first part of the abstract anyway):
Dealing with the on-going structural changes in the media landscape is one of the most urgent challenges in today’s society, both for people working in the media industry and for consumers trying to adapt to a large and increasing number of new media technologies and services. In this article, we present and discuss a number of current media trends, outline possible future scenarios and evaluate and discuss these scenarios in terms of future media consumption, mainly focusing on the Nordic media market. The research questions are: What are the main media consumption trends today, and what could be the most important characteristics of media consumption in different future scenarios? We have used a combination of a future studies approach, semi-structured expert interviews and design fiction methodology. We have organized two reference group workshops and then interviewed 11 media experts, both from the media industry and the academic world, and combined the results of these interviews and workshops with the significant media trends generated through design fiction methodology in the project course “The Future of Media” at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.

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Penzenstadler, B. [...] (2014). "ICT4S 2029: What will be the systems supporting sustainability in 15 years?". Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S'14), Stockholm, Sweden, Aug 24-27, 2014. Nominated for the Best Paper Award. Available online.

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Eriksson, E. and Pargman, D. (2014). "ICT4S reaching out: Making sustainability relevant in higher education". Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S'14), Stockholm, Sweden, Aug 24-27, 2014. The article won the Best Paper Award (out of 49 articles). Available online.

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Hedin, B., & Pargman, D. (2013). “Nu ska jag plugga! Jag ska bara färgsortera mina böcker först” [I'm gonna study now! I just have to color-code my books first]. In 4: e Utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar [4th developmental conference for Swedish engineering educations], Tekniska Högskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nov 2013. Available online.

Abstract (translated):
Procrastination, or, to postpone something against your own better judgement, is a large problem in society in general and for students in particular. In this article, we describe a training module on procrastination which we have introduced in two engineering programs at KTH, of which this article addresses the computer science and engineering program in which 466 students participated. The evaluation had a 100% response rate, and it shows that 95% of students had problems with procrastination and 43% had large or very large problems. 88% felt that procrastination was a good theme to discuss in their education, and 57% felt that the module had positive effects on their study habits. Only 7% felt that the module had not had any noticeable effects on their studies. As the module only requires 8 hours of work from students, we believe that the advantages imply that this, or a similar module, should be included in all engineering programs.

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Pargman, D. and Eriksson, E. (2013). "’It’s not fair! – Making students engage in sustainability". Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development, Cambridge, UK, Sept 22-25, 2013. Available online (pdf).

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Wangel, J., Höjer, M., Pargman, D. and Svane, Ö. (2013). "Engineers of the future: Using scenarios methods in sustainable development education". Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development, Cambridge, UK, Sept 22-25, 2013. Available online (pdf).

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Pargman, D. and Svensson, D. (2013). ”21st century sports: Movements without movements”. Proceedings of On the Move, the 2013 Advanced Cultural Studies Institute of Sweden conference, Norrköping, Sweden, June 11-13, 2013.
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Zapico, J., Pargman, D., Ebner, H. and Eriksson, E. (2013). ”Hacking sustainability: Broadening participation through Green Hackathon”. Position paper presented at the Fourth International Symposium on End-User Development workshop on ”EUD for supporting sustainability in maker communities”, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 10-13, 2013.
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Pargman, D., Walldius, Å. and Eriksson, E. (2013). ”HCI in a world of limitations: Addressing the social resilience of computing”. Position paper presented at the CHI 2013 workshop on ”Post-sustainability”, Paris, France, April 27 - May 2, 2013.

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Pargman, D., Hedin, B. and Hrastinski, S. (2013). "Using group supervision and social annotation systems to support students' academic writing". Högre Utbildning, Vol.3, No.2, pp.129-134.
 Comment: Högre Utbildning [Higher Education] is an open access journal and the whole issue is available here. Our paper is available here (pdf file).

Abstract: In this best practice paper, we present how we have used a Social annotation system (SAS) in a bachelor's thesis course in media technology to support students' academic writing. In the paper, we reflect on both technical and social practices with using SAS. Despite the limited instructional support and despite the fact that different groups used SAS in different ways, there have been a high completion rate, good quality of the theses and satisfied students. The combination of group supervision and the use of SAS has been successful, especially when taking into consideration that this was the first year we broadly introduced SAS in the bachelor's thesis course.

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"Ubiquitous information in a world of limitation" (preliminary title)

Abstract: "Many of us take for granted that the future can be extrapolated from the present and the recent past, and be based on a narrative of expanding borders and scientific progress. A growing number of scientists (and activists) however point at the triple crisis (ecology, economy, energy) and imagine radically different futures based on narratives of limitations and perhaps even decline (ecological crises, climate change, water scarcity, peak oil, recession without end or jobless growth, social instability etc.).

So what if 3G (2001) mobile phone services are not followed by 4G systems (2011-2013) and 5G systems (≈ 2020)? What if "the future of ubiquitous information" is already here, and it's name is... Detroit? Detroit, also known as "Motor City", has fallen on hard times in tandem with the decline of the "big three" American automakers, and has lost half its population since 1950.

If we posit a scenario where economic growth will be slot to return (or absent), and unemployment will continue to be high, the future use of computing will for a gradually larger segment of the population consist of inexpensive portable computing equipment (laptop/notebook computers, smart or not-so-smart cell phones) and wireless Internet access. Once again we have to look for inspiration from the United States of America as this model (products and services for the permanently unemployed consumer is pioneered already today in declining cities such as Detroit, and elsewhere."

---------- Something important happened here. There is break in time that lasted for years between the publications below and those above. There is also a break in the topic I write about - it took some years to read up and pivot after I discovered sustainability. I moved from a focus on virtual communities and online games to my current focus on sustainability and computing (and as mirrored in the total absence of publications between 2010 and 2012). ---------- 


Pargman, Daniel and Palme, Jacob (2009). "ASCII imperialism" (pdf). In Martha Lampland and Susan Leigh Star (eds.), "Standards and their stories: How quantifying, classifying, and formalizing practices shape everyday life", pp.177-199. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

From the introduction: "Poor Hörby. On the Internet, the municipality of Hörby in southerns Sweden is known as Horby (www.horby.se). One part of the name, -by, means village or hamlet in Swedish. Unfortunately, the meaning of the Swedish word hor is adultery or fornication [related to the English word whore]. [...]

How could things go so wrong? To explain why Hörby became Horby [...] on the Internet, this chapter takes a closer look at computer character set standards and their consequences. We thereby look at questions whose answers [...] have to do with the, in many respects, invisible infrastructure of the Internet. A seemingly simple question [...] leads to the much larger question: "Why do people using languages other than English so often have problems using the Internet?" The short answer is that the rules, or infrastructure, that are in place allow for certain things but not for others. A longer and more thorough answer must delve into a whole set of intriguing questions [...]

We suggest that there is a built-in bias in the current Internet infrastructure. We, furthermore, argue that the interests of English speakers in general and of software developers in particular have much more influence than the interest of nonexpert users and people using languages other than English."

Comment: This book chapter is the result of more than 10 years of (now-and-then) thinking about these issues (see Pargman 1998 and Pargman and Palme 2004 below). As we had to cut down a longer draft paper with somewhere between 1/3 and 1/2, there is probably also a journal article hiding somewhere in this text if the right opportunity shows up! See Koegler 2010, "Babel 2.0: Bridging the linguistic digital divide" for a paper that heavily makes use of this text.

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Pargman, Daniel and Jakobsson, Peter (2008). "Do you believe in magic? Computer games in everyday life". European Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 225-244. Abstract.

Abstract: "Huizinga's concept of a 'magic circle' has been used to depict computer games and gaming activities as something separate from ordinary life. In this view, games are special (magical) and they only come to life within temporal and spatial borders that are enacted and performed by the participants. This article discusses the concept of a 'magic circle' and finds that it lacks specificity. Attempts to use the concept of a magic circle create a number of anomalies that are problematic. This is not, as has been suggested earlier, primarily a matter of the genre of the game, or a discussion of what an appropriate definition of a 'game' might be. Rather, in this study with hardcore gamers, playing computer games is a routine and mundane activity, making the boundary between play and non-play tenuous to say the least. This article presents an alternative theoretical framework which should be explored further."

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Pargman, Daniel and Jakobsson, Peter (2007). "Five perspectives on computer game history". ACM Interactions, Vol.14, No.6, pp. 26-29, November-December 2007.

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Rambusch, Jana; Jakobsson, Peter and Pargman, Daniel (2007). "Exploring E-sports: A case study of game play in Counter-strike" (ONLINE). Proceedings of Situated Play: Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) 2007 Conference. Tokyo, Japan, 2007.

Abstract: "In this paper, a case study of Counter-strike is presented in which cognitive, cultural, economical, and technological aspects of people's gameplay activities are discussed. Most attention is given to Counter-strike as an e-sport - competitive gameplay which borrows forms from traditional sports. Also, methodological and theoretical issues related to the study are discussed, including issues of player-centered approaches and issues related to the cross-disciplinary of the study, which borrows perspectives from cognitive science as well as cultural studies."

Comment: I think e-sports (the professionalization of computer gaming) is fascinating. It raises many questions about the permeable border between work and play.

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Pargman, Daniel and Jakobson, Peter (2006). "The magic is gone: A critical examination of the gaming situation". Proceedings of Mediaterra: Gaming realities. Athens, Greece, October 2006.

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Pargman, Daniel (2006). "Space and on-line travelling: What does distance mean on the Internet?". Merge Magazine #17.  (ONLINE)

First section: "Are you experiencing the whole wide world at your fingertips when you surf the web? Surely not, that would be equivalent to "experiencing the whole ocean" while dipping your toe in the water. How then is distance constructed, enacted and experienced on the Internet? This is the question that unites all cyber-geographers of the world. The scope of this text [is] more limited and it concerns space, distance and travelling inside on-line virtual worlds."

Comment: This is a short popular text. I'm embarrassed by the fact that traveling is misspelled in the title but the text itself is (still) a pretty good introduction to issues that are relevant and interesting. 
Abstract: "This paper presents the concept of a "black box" as a tool for analyzing virtual worlds. The concept comes from the field of Science & Technology Studies (STS) and we employ it here more specifically to study one such virtual world in particular, Project Entropia.

The concept of a "black box" is used to describe the developers' efforts to hide or to build certain assumptions into the very fabric of the virtual world in order to get the players to perform certain prescribed roles. The concept is also used to describe players' efforts to open up this black box in order to get access to and play other roles - roles not prescribed by the game publisher and that in some cases function as a threat to the publisher's business model.

The focus of the analysis is on the imperative to "pay to play". This imperative is essential to the developers of the game since Project Entropia does not employ the usual subscription-based revenue model that most other Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG) use." 

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Pargman, Daniel and Eriksson, Andreas (2005). "Law, order and conflicts of interest in massively multiplayer online games" (ONLINE). Proceedings of Changing Views - Worlds in Play: Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) 2005 Conference. Vancouver, Canada, Juni 2005.

Abstract: "In huge online games where great numbers of players can be connected at the same time, social interaction is complex and conflicts become part of everyday life. There is a set or rules and norms in the game for what is allowed and what is prohibited and these are partly set up by the game publisher and partly evolve among the players themselves over time.

This paper describes and exemplifies a number of often-contested behaviors around which most in-game conflicts in the massively multiplayer online games (MMOG) Everquest revolve. Using these examples as a starting point, the paper presents a conceptual framework for analyzing conflicts and allegiance in MMOGs."  

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Borovic, Claudijo and Pargman, Daniel (2005). "Learning in online computer games: The emergence of in-game academies". In Mia Consalvo and Kate O'Riordan (eds.), "Internet Research Annual: Selected Papers from the Association of Internet Researchers Conference 2004, Volume 3. New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group.

Abstract: "When the first author worked as a university teacher a student introduced him to an online computer game called TDZK <http://www.tdzk.net/> which the student described as a "brower-based MMORPG". Since we have a research interest in computer games and learning, we were intrigued when we heard that players in the game hold regular classes in order to teach each other the ins and outs of the game.

In this paper we first describe the TDZK game structure. We will then depict the game content, or what people actually do in TDZK both in relation to what is set in place by the game engine as well as the conditions set by the game community. Finally we will show that knowledge and learning are significant in the game and that we can see a movement in TDZK from informal learning to formal learning situations.

We here describe the game TDZK and analyze it from a perspective of social theories of learning. Our ultimate aim is to learn how learning is constitued in TDZK but our aim here is more modest. What we present here are (1) the observations of a small exploratory study, (2) a number of questions that these observations pose and (3) a theoretical framework for how learning in TDZK - and more generally in other online games - could be understood and studied."

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Pargman, Daniel (2005). "Virtual community management as socialization and learning" (pdf). In P. van der Besselaar, G. De Michelis, J. Preece and C. Simone (eds.), Proceedings of the Second international conference on Communities and Technologies, Milano June 2005, pp. 95-110. Dordrecht: Springer.

Abstract: "How does a (virtual) community thrive and survive over time? From having studies a thirteen-year old Swedish-language adventure mud, I here suggest that our understanding of the answer has to be built on a social theory of learning that takes into account that learning has to do with community, practice, meaning and identity. Making a "career" in a community of practice can be regarded as a movement from the periphery to the core, a movement from being a novice to becoming an expert in the activities that are central to the community. On that journey, the individual is over time "configred" into learning how to act, reason and think about the community in the right way.

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Skågeby, Jörgen and Pargman, Daniel (2005). "File-sharing relationships: Conflicts of interest in online gift-giving". In P. van der Besselaar, G. De Michelis, J. Preece and C. Simone (eds.), Proceedings of the Second Communities and Technologies Conference, Milano 2005, pp. 111-127. Dordrecht: Springer.

Abstract: "This paper suggests a relationship model for describing, analyzing and forseeing conflicts of interest in file-sharing networks. The model includes levels of relationship ranging from the individual (ego), to the small group of close peers (micro), to a larger network of acquaintances (meso) to the anonymous larger network (macro). It is argued that an important focal point of analysis of cooperation and conflict is situated in the relations between these levels. Three examples of conflicts from a studied file-sharing network are presented. Finally, the relationship model is discussed in terms of applicability to other domains, recreational as well as professional."

Comment: The paper and the model proposed was partly an effect of discussions with Jörgen when he took a Ph.D. course I gave on "Social interaction and the design of virtual communities" (autumn 2004).

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Pargman, Daniel and Palme, Jacob (2004). "Linguistic standardization on the Internet". In C. Ess and F. Sudweeks (eds.), Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Communication and Technology (CaTaC'04), Karlstad, Sweden, June 2004.

Abstract: "We argue that there is a build-in bias in the architecture of the Internet that benefits English-speakers but that there are still advantages in having a biased system that works "well enough" for everyone (albeit better for some) rather than having a system that worls less well for everyone."

Comment: The contents of this short paper was developed into Pargman and Palme (2009) (see above).

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Pargman, Daniel (2003). "Word as code, code as world" (ONLINE). Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Digital Arts and Culture (DAC), Melbourne, Australia, May 2005.

Abstract: "This paper examines imaginary worlds - complex but logical-and-controllable systems. The paper analyzes the overlap between structural characteristics of different sorts of imaginary worlds, as they are constituted in (fantasy) literature, role-playing games and computer code."

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Pargman, Daniel (2002). "MUD - Det datorbaserade rollspelet". Tidskrift för Børne- & Ungdomskultur, No.44.

Abstract: "Rollspel och ungdomskulturer har med datoernas framfart på senare år gett sig ut på Internet. Ett fenomen som lockar många unga idag är en typ av rollspel och sociala mötesplatser som går under beteckningen Mud. Mud kan vara spännande och det finns flera berättelser om deras tidvis nästan hypnotiska förmåga att binda människor till sig. Många har berättat om hur man lätt kan bli fångad framför sin datorskärm i timmar och vissa har till och med periodvis lagt en större del av sin vakna tid i den virtuella världen än i den verkliga. Detta kapitel berättar vad Mud är och hur de fungerar. Kapitlet innehåller fyra delar. Den första går igenom vad mud är och den andra beskriver bakgrunden till mud, deras historia. Den tredje gör en jämförelse mellan vanliga rollspel och mud som datobaserade rollspel. Den fjärde beskriver ett specifikt mud som heter SvenskMud."

Kommentar: Jag blev tillfrågad om att skriva en text till en dansk tidsskrift som skulle publicera ett specialnummer om fantasy- och datorspel.

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Pargman, Daniel (2000). "What makes a virtual community work?" In J. Gulliksen and A. Lantz (eds.), Proceedings of the First Nordic Conference on Computer-Human Interaction, Stockholm, Sweden, October 2000.

Introduction: "Most muds - text-based social virtual environments - are either young or dead. That being so, what makes a mud long-lived? More generally; what makes a (virtual) community hold togehter, thrive and develop over time?"

Comment: This (very) short paper summarizes my ph.d thesis in two pages as well as outlines an interest that was pursued in Bogdan and Pargman (2003) and Bogdan and Pargman (2004) (see below), but the result never went beyond a half-finshed draft on the subject of sustainability of Internet communities.

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Pargman, Daniel (2000). "Code begets community: On social and technical aspects of managing a virtual community" (Ph.D. dissertatin, ONLINE). Linköping Studies in Arts and Science No. 224, Department of Communication Studies, Linköping University, Sweden (December 2000).

Text on book cover: "What is reality beyond the hype of virtual communities on the Internet? This Ph.D. thesis is based on three and a half years of studies in a Swedish-speaking adventure mud - a text-based virtual reality system. The focus is not primarily on the players, but on the administrators and on the work to make this virtual community work.

A point of departure is that SvenskMud can be seen as many things at the same time: a game, a computer program and a hobby. SvenskMud is an expression of a partisan, grass-roots initiative. It is not endorsed or supported by a powerful organization. All work is volutnary and unpaid and all usage is free. The values that SvenskMud endorses are the values of its crator and guardians - not of vendors who try to please an audience at any cost.

An important characteristic of virtual communites is that social concerns become difficult to separate from technical practices. Social and technical issues interact and co-evolve in such intimate ways that they often merge in a mud. Management of the social system is done through computer code. During specific and favorable conditions, such computer code can indeed beget community. It is these circumstances that this work attempts to elucidate."

Comment: Well, it's my ph.d. thesis, representing 5+ years of work. I actually think it holds up surprisingly well even after all that time. Follow the link (above), download and read a chapter and make up your own mind!

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Pargman, Daniel (2000). "The fabric of virtual reality: Courage, rewards and death in an adventure mud" (ONLINE). M/C: A Journal of Media and Culture. Vol.3, No.5 (October 2000).

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Hernwall, Patrik; Kelly, Anna and Pargman, Daniel (1999). "I början av en revolution? Slutrapport Stockholms stads skolutvecklingsprojekt 'Den totalt IT-anpassade skolan' samt 'Framtidens skola i dagens samhälle'". Pedagogik & Media-seminariets skriftserie, nr 6. Pedagogiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.

Ur förordet: "I och med utgången av vårterminen 1999 avslutades de två IT-projekt i Stockholms stad som drivits inom ramen för KK-stiftelsens satsning på kommunbaserade skolutvecklingsprojet. [...] Satsningarna har åtföljts av utvärderingsinstatser. Den slutrapport som du nu håller i din hand söker fånga några moment i denna förändring"

Kommentar: Denna slutrapport sammanfattar två treåriga IT-utvecklingsprojekt i grundskolan och föregicks av en lång radda rapporter som jag inte ids rada upp här och som numera känns ganska inaktuella.

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Pargman, Daniel (1998). "Reflections on cultural bias and adaption" (ONLINE). In C. Ess and F. Sudweeks (eds.), Proceedings of Cultural Attitudes Towards Communication and Technology '98 (CaTaC'98), pp. 81-99. University of Sydney.
Reprinted in Javnost - the public: Journal of the European Institute for communication and culture, Vol.6, No.4. (1999).

Abstract: "SvenskMud (Swedish MUD) is an Internet-accessible Multi-User Domain (MUD) system but, in contrast to 99% of all Internet-accessible MUDs, SvenskMud is not a global community. Rather, SvenskMud is the first vernacular (i.e. non-English speaking) MUD in the world, and the only Swedish-speaking MUD in Sweden today. This article addresses four questions with regards to cultural attitudes and thir relationship to computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies: (1) How have American cultural attitudes (historically) shaped the devlopment and use of CMC technologies? (2) How do today's cultural attitudes shape the implementation and use of CMC technologies? (3) How do cultural attitudes manifest themselves in the implementation and use of MUDs? (4) How do cultural attitudes manifest themselves in the implemenation and use of SvenskMud?"

Comment: Some of the thoughts (especially pertaining to quesions 1-2) were developed in Pargman and Palme (2004) and Pargman and Palme (2009) (see above)

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Pargman, Daniel (1997). "Computer-mediated communication: Theory and practice". Verklighet och Vision: Första universitetspedagogiska konferensen vid Linköpings universitet. Rapport nr. 1, 1997, Centrum för universitetspedagogik (CUP), Linköpings universitet.

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Pargman, Daniel (1995). "MUD - Synkron kommunikation och elektroniska gemenskaper på Internet". Arbetsrapport 1995:25, Tema Kommunikation, Linköpings universitet.

Ur introduktionen: "Mitt syfte med denna studie är att beskriva fenomenet mud. Arbetet är snarast att jämföra med en explorativ studie. När jag startade min undersökning av mud i början av 1995 hade jag bara vaga uppfattningar om vad det rörde sig om och jag visste helt enkelt inte tillräckligt mycket om detta fenomen för att kunna välja ett fokus för att kunna genomföra en mer avgränsad, empirisk studie. [...] Som forskare valde jag att lösa detta [...] genom att spåra upp den forskning som sker kring dem, och genom att läsa allt som går att komma över som har skrivits om mud. Först i andra hand har själva användningen av mud kommit."

Kommentar: En 50 sidor lång rapport som var mitt första självständiga arbete som doktorand och som väl är jämförbart i arbetsinsats med en magisteruppsats (en termins arbete). En grundlig genomgång av vad mud är (datormedierad kommunikation), hur man kan förstå det (inklusive en genomgång av metaforer som använts) och vad andra hade skrivit om det (nästan 20 andra texter om muds + flera andra papper om närstående fenomen, t.ex. IRC).

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Palme, Jacob; Karlgren, Jussi and Pargman, Daniel (1995). "Issues when designing filters in messaging systems". Computer Communications, Vol.19, No.2, pp. 95-101.

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Karlgren, Jussi; Höök, Kristina; Lantz, Ann; Palme, Jacob and Pargman, Daniel (1994). "The glass box user model for filtering". Proceedings of the 4th International Conferene on User Modeling (UM-94), Cape Cod: ACM.
A longer version is republished as Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Technical Report T94:09 (ONLINE).

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Pargman, Daniel; Karlgren, Jussi; Lantz, Ann; Palmgren, Olle and Höök, Kia (1994). "How to create a humane information flow" (ONLINE). Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Technical Report

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Karlgren, Jussi; Höök, Kristina; Jansson, Carl Gustaf; Kilander, Fredrik; Lantz, Ann; Palme, Jacob; Palmgren, Olle; Pargman, Daniel and Wærn, Yvonne (1993). "An overview of the intfilter project". Working paper, Department of computer and systems science, Stockholm university.


Unpublished papers

Pargman, Daniel (2007?). "Space and on-line traveling: What does distance mean on the Internet?".

Pargman, Daniel (1998). "Organization and regulation of a virtual community". Presented at the International Telecommunications Society's Twelfth Biennial Conference (ITS'98), Stockholm, Sweden, June 1998.

Abstract: "How does a specific mud (SvenskMud), as an example of a virtual community, manage to organize and regulate its activities in such a way that a sustainable community is developed and maintained over time? Two different framworks are used to explore the question, first regarding SvenskMud as a public good and second as an activity system."

Comment: I presented a paper, but it was as far as I can tell never published in conference proceedings etc., but rather just handed out out to those who wanted a copy.

The attempt to analyze SvenskMud from the point of view of an "activity system" turned out to be a dead end, primarily because I used the whole community of managers as the "subject" in the model instead of individual managers. 

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Pargman, Daniel (1997). "The future of direct manipulation interfaces in a networked world".

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Pargman, Daniel (1995). "Another seminar in cyberspace".

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Pargman, Daniel (1995). "Explorations in artifact space".

From the introduction: "Artifact. L. arte, by art, and factum, made. Any man-made object. Websters, 1980 edition.

The term artifact is used to describe many different phenomena in a variety of disciplines. It is used by archeologists to describe ancient remnants that are reclaimed from their hidings in the earth. It is used by students of art and literature to describe works of art. It is used by designers to refer to the physical and representational manifestations of their work.

The term artifact is often used casually to refer to objects of interest in the particular discipline in question. This vague, referential use of the term is obviously not satisfying here. So, what exactly is an artifact? I will here use the initially stated definition together with sociocultural theories to make an inquiry into the subject."

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Pargman, Daniel (1992). "Artificial Life"


Conference presentations (no papers)

Jakobsson, Peter; Rambusch, Jana and Pargman, Daniel (2006). "Counter-strike skillz: competitive gaming, status and prestige". Presented at Unga och Nätverkskulturer, Jönköping, Sweden, December 2006.

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Jakobsson, Peter and Pargman, Daniel (2006). "Playing at home: Digital games, space, and experience". Proceedings of The Virtual - A room without borders?, Södertörn, Sweden, September 2006.

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Jakobsson, Peter and Pargman, Daniel (2006). "Time and digital games". Presented at Crossroads in Cultural Studies, Istanbul, Turkey, July 2006.

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Pargman, Daniel; Goldin, Simon and Senneby, Jakob (2005). "Problematizing production - economy and value creation in Second Life". Presented at Aesthetics of Play: A conference on computer game aesthetics. Bergen, Norway, October 2005.

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Pargman, Daniel (2005). "Law and order in online games". Presented at Internet Research 5.0.

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Bogdan, Cristi and Pargman, Daniel (2004). "Neither young, nor dead: Sustainability of Internet Communities". Presented at Internet Research 5.0.

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Borovic, Claudijo and Pargman, Daniel (2004). "Informal learning in online games". Presented at Internet Research 5.0.

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Pargman, Daniel and Borovic, Claudijo (2004), "Formalization of learning in online computer games". Presented at The 3rd Nordic Conference on Cultural and Activity Theory.

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Pargman, Daniel and Bogdan, Cristi (2003), "Tensions in commercial virtual communities". Presented at Digital Communities 2003, Stockholm.

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Bogdan, Cristi and Pargman, Daniel (2003), "Sustainability of Internet communities". Presented at Digital Communities 2003, Stockholm.

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Pargman, Daniel (1999). "Complexity of social virtual environments". Presented at Future Directions in Virtual Environments Workshop (FDIVE II), KTH, Stockholm, November 1999.

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Pargman, Daniel (1998). "Crime and punishment in a virtual community". Presented at Future Directions in Virtual Environments Workshop (FDIVE I), Chalmers university, Gothenburn, November 1998.

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Pargman, Daniel (1998). "Organization and regulation of a virtual community". Presented at the International Telecommunications Society's Twelfth Biennial Conference (ITS'98), Stockholm, Sweden, June 1998.

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Pargman, Daniel (1998). "Explorations in artifact space". Presented at the Fourth Congress of the International Society for Cultural Research and Activity Theory (ISCRAT), Århus, Denmark, June 1998.

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Pargman, Daniel (1997). "Breakdowns in text-based synchronous communication". Presented at KFB Telematics Program Conference, October 1997.

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Pargman, Daniel (1996). "Localizing and vernacularizing a global culture - the SvenskMud case". Presented at Crossroads in Cultural Studies, Tampere, Finland, July 1996.

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Pargman, Daniel (1996). "MUD - Multi-User Domain". Presented at Workshop 2, Kulturnät Sverige, "Kultur på nätet - den digitala mötesplatsen och museernas nya arena, May 1996.

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Pargman, Daniel (1995). "Odysseus - Designing a hand-held computer for schoolchildren". Presented at the sixth IFIP World Conference on Computer in Education (WCCE'95). Birmingham, England, July 1995.
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